Heart Health - Foods for

Foods to Support Your Best Cardiovascular Health

February is American Heart Month, and while you’ll no doubt see and hear a lot about the heart this month,it is but one pieceof the whole picture of cardiovascular health. Of equal importance is the intricate system of arteries, veins, and capillaries—collectively called the blood vessels—thatput the vascular in cardiovascular. The blood vessels are more than just inactive tubes for transporting the blood pumped by the heart; they play a crucial role in overall cardiovascular health, actively impacting blood pressure, blood viscosity, as well as the formation of plaque.The vascular system, and thus overall cardiovascular health, is very sensitive to the nutritional choices you make—every bite you take is a chance to improve your cardiovascular health.

You’ve probably heard about some superstar cardiovascular foodslike cold-water fatty fish (rich in omega-3’s) or dark chocolate and red wine (full of polyphenols), and with good reason, but there areso many more foods that fit the bill. Here are a few cardiovascular-friendly foodsyou may not have considered:

  • Nuts have continually been shown to support cardiovascular health, but the notion that their benefits come solely from the healthy fats they contain is being kicked to the curb. New research is shedding light on the mechanism in which nuts have such a positive impact on cardiovascular health—theyrepair damaged DNA. This is an incredible discovery, since DNA damage alters healthy gene expression and has been correlated not only with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease but also with insulin resistance and obesity, both of which are closely associated with cardiovascular disease progression. Aim for a 1-ounce servingdaily.[i],[ii],[iii],[iv]
  • Grass-fed beef is a nutritional world apart from conventionally-raised, grain-fed beef. It boasts an impressive omega-3 to omega-6 ratio that is far superior to that of grain-fed beef, which means that grass-fed beef, much like fatty, cold-water fish, helps protect against inflammation in the body. Grass-fed beef is also an excellent source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which was shown to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with atherosclerosis,[v] and vitamin E, which helps protect cholesterol from oxidizing. Be sure to choose 100% grass-fedbeef.
  • While it might not seem quite as fun and decadent, a diet rich in a variety of fruitsandvegetables knocks the socks off a nightly glass of red wine or a piece of dark chocolate when it comes to keeping the cardiovascular system in tip-top shape. One analysis found that for every serving of fruits and vegetables eaten daily the risk of coronary heart disease was reduced by four percent.[vi] Veggies in particular can help to keep blood sugar balanced which is also critical for protecting the delicate endothelium. In general, aim to get five to nine servings of vegetables and a couple servings of fruits,in a rainbow of colors, daily. Some particularly beneficial choices for cardiovascular health include:
  • Beets, which promote blood vessel relaxation and healthy blood flow[vii]
  • Allium family vegetables like onions, garlic, leeks, and scallions, which support healthy blood flow and protect LDL cholesterol from oxidation[viii][ix]
  • Eggplant, purple cabbage, pomegranates, berriesand other darkly colored fruits and veggies, which are high in a classof polyphenols called anthocyanins that protect against inflammation and oxidative damage
  • Vitamin K2 found in dairy fromgrass-fed animals (especially grass-fed butter and cheese), egg yolks frompastured chickens, and organ meatsfrompastured animals, directs calcium to the bones and prevents it from settling in the arteries where it can lead to atherosclerosis. It also modulates inflammation. In general, a high intake of vitamin K2 is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular disease.[x],[xi]

As important as what you include in your diet is what you leave out. Trans-fats (a.k.a. partially- hydrogenated fats), high glycemic index and glycemic load foods (breads, muffins, bagels, crackers, pastries, and sweets) and omega-6 fats (from vegetable oils like corn, soy, safflower, sunflower, and cottonseed) have all been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.[xii],[xiii]The processed and fast food industries are built on these cardiovascular killers; moving toward a natural-foods diet,built on organic vegetables and fruit, pastured meat and dairy, and healthy fats is one of the most important changes you can make for cardiovascular health.

 

The Saturated Fat Myth

The beauty of scientific theories is that they can be rejected or modified as new evidence becomes available. Recently, the long-held theory that saturated fat causes heart disease is being turned on its head. For nearly five decades we’ve been told that eating saturated fats will clog our arteries and cause heart disease, but a closer look at the research suggests this theory doesn’t have much truth behind it. A recent analysis of 21 published studies found no connection between saturated fat intake and cardiovascular disease risk, confirming what many in the holistic health field have suspected all along—saturated fats are not the bad guys they’ve been made out to be.[xiv]

 

References

[i] Mercer JR, Cheng KK, Figg N, et al. DNA damage links mitochondrial dysfunction to atherosclerosis and the metabolic syndrome. Circ Res. 2010;107(8):1021-31.

[ii] Demirbag R, Yilmaz R, Gur M, et al. DNA damage in metabolic syndrome and its association with antioxidative and oxidative measurements. Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60(10):1187-1193.

[iii]Kastan MB. DNA damage responses: mechanisms and roles in human disease. Molecular Cancer Research. 2008;517.

[iv] Gandhi G, Kaur G. Assessment of DNA damage in obese individuals. Research Journal of Biology. 2012;2(2):37-44.

[v] Hassan E, Aliasghari, F, Babaei-Beigi M, Hasanzadeh J. “Effect of conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in atherosclerotic patients.” ARYA Atheroscler. 2013 Nov;9(6):311-8.

[vi] Crowe FL, Roddam AW, Key TJ, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and mortality from ischaemic heart disease: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heart Study. European Heart Journal. Published Online 2011.

[vii] Lidder S, Webb AJ. Vascular effects of dietary nitrate (as foundin green leafy vegetables and beetroot) via the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75(3):677-696.

[viii] Sinatra, S.T. and M.C. Houston. “The Integrative Approach to Hypertension.” In Integrative Cardiology, eds. S. Devries and J. Dalen. N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2011. 224-246.

[ix] Wilson EA, Demmig-Adams B. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties of garlic and onions. Nutrition & Food Science. 2007;37(3):178-183.

[x] Kresser C. RHR: Can vitamin K2 prevent cardiovascular disease? Revolution Health Radio. Transcript available at: http://chriskresser.com/can-vitamin-k2-prevent-cardiovascular-disease

[xi] Gast CC, de Roos NM, Sluijs I, Bots ML, et al. A high menaquinone intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19(7):504-510.

[xii] Mente A, de Koning L, Shannon HS, Anand SS. A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(7):659-669.

[xiii] University of Toronto. Some ‘healthy’ vegetable oils may actually increase the risk of heart disease. ScienceDaily. Nov 11, 2013. Available at: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131111122105.htm

[xiv] Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(3):535-546.