Foods for Blood Sugar Balance

Maintain Healthy Blood Sugar Balance… with FOOD!

The season of justified overindulgence is fast approaching—really, when else do you have the excuse to gorge on massive second (or third) helpings, drink your weight in eggnog, and over-satisfy your sweet tooth? Most people worry about putting on a few extra pounds through the holiday season, but even more worrisome is the negative effect that all of this excess eating and drinking has on blood sugar. Chronically elevated blood sugar increases inflammation and the risk of neuropathy, impaired cognitive function, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7] And new research has shown that the damaging effects of high blood sugar are evident in those with blood glucose levels in the high end of the normal range.[8],[9] Simply put, excess blood sugar is seriously damaging to health. The good news is that maintaining healthy blood sugar balance is within your control because it is almost entirely dependant on what you eat (and don’t eat).

When sugary foods and simple carbohydrates are ingested, they are rapidly digested and converted into glucose, leading to sharp spikes in blood sugar (glucose) levels. The pancreas responds by releasing a surge of insulin, which directs the glucose into cells and lowers blood sugar levels back to a normal range. When sugar and/or carbs are occasionally consumed in very small amounts, this is an effective system. However, when these types of foods are regularly consumed, the body is constantly fighting to keep blood sugar levels in a normal range by continually pumping more insulin into the bloodstream. Overtime, the cells may stop responding to insulin (insulin resistance), the first step toward developing type-2 diabetes. This also leads to chronically elevated blood sugar and insulin levels, which damage proteins in the body, such as collagen, and lead to major inflammation, an underlying factor in almost all chronic diseases.

On the other hand, when your diet is built around healthy proteins, fats, and fiber, you can avoid elevated blood sugar and insulin levels and maintain a healthy blood sugar balance. Foods to focus on are meat, eggs, and dairy from pasture-raised animals; avocados, olives, nuts, seeds, butter, and olive and coconut oils; and lots of brightly colored vegetables and small amounts of fruit. Start each day with a protein and veggie-rich breakfast then keep it up with lunch and dinner, and snacks in between, if necessary, all built around these foundational foods. Everyone is a little different and has different requirements, but you’ll know you’ve got the right formula when your energy is steady, your mood is balanced, and your cravings have decreased.

From this foundation there are a number of specific vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients that support healthy blood sugar balance. Some exceptional choices include:

  • Wild salmon, sardines, herring, mackerel, anchovies, and even pastured eggs and beef are good sources of the omega-3 fats EPA and DHA, which improve glucose tolerance and protect against the development of pre-diabetes.[10],[11],[12]
  • The mineral chromium is essential for insulin to work properly. In fact the primary signs of chromium deficiency are increased glucose and insulin levels. Small amounts of chromium are found in a wide variety of foods, but some reliably good sources include brewer’s yeast, calf’s liver, grassfed beef, oysters, mussels, romaine lettuce, broccoli, and mushrooms.
  • Magnesium plays a central role in the body’s secretion and use of insulin and helps maintain proper blood sugar levels, while low intakes of magnesium are associated with an increased risk of type-2 diabetes. [13] Foods high in magnesium are leafy green vegetables, nuts and seeds, avocados, kelp, plain yogurt, oysters, and shrimp.
  • Foods naturally high in fiber help to balance blood sugar by slowing the time it takes carbohydrates to be digested, thus slowing the release of glucose into the blood stream. Soluble fiber, the type of fiber that attracts water and forms a gel-like substance during digestion, is particularly beneficial because it can improve glucose and insulin response.[14] Many soluble fibers can also be fermented by intestinal bacteria. As the bacteria use these fibers for fuel they produce short chain fatty acids that feed the colon cells and also help to improve insulin sensitivity and protect against metabolic damage that can lead to pre-diabetes and diabetes.[15],[16],[17],[18] Nearly all fresh vegetables and fruits are good sources of fiber, but flaxseeds, Brussels sprouts, asparagus, collard greens, broccoli, eggplant, summer and winter squash, turnips, rutabagas, parsnips, and beets are all good sources of soluble fiber. Don’t be tempted to rely solely on a supplement to get your fiber, though since this approach has generally not been shown to be as beneficial as eating the real deal.
  • Foods rich in flavonoids, in particular anthocyanins found in deeply colored vegetables and fruits like red cabbage, purple eggplant, purple potatoes, red radish, blueberries, and blackberries are potent antioxidants that help to preserve insulin function by protecting the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas from damage. They also help support healthy post-meal blood sugar levels.[19] Regular consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods is associated with a lowered risk of developing type-2 diabetes.[20],[21],[22]
  • Green tea (and to some extent black and oolong teas) contains epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which slows the breakdown of starches and sugars in the digestive tract and improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.[23],[24] Regular consumption of green tea is associated with a lower risk of type-2 diabetes.[25]
  • Vinegar helps to moderate post meal blood sugar and insulin fluctuations, possibly by blocking the absorption of sugar and starch from the intestines.[26],[27] An act as simple as starting your meal with a small salad dressed with olive oil and vinegar can have an immediate and positive impact on your glycemic response.[28] There is even some evidence to suggest that other acidic foods like lemon juice, lacto-fermented veggies (e.g. kimchi, sauerkraut), and kombucha may have similar effects on blood sugar levels.[29],[30],[31]
  • The allium family, which includes onions, garlic, shallots, scallions, and leeks, contains compounds that support healthy blood sugar levels, as well as antioxidants that help protect the body from the damaging effects of high blood sugar.[32],[33],[34]
  • There are a number of culinary spices that support healthy blood sugar levels, and many are potent antioxidants that protect the body from the damaging effects of high blood sugar. Cinnamon in particular has been well researched for its blood sugar balancing effects. Compounds in cinnamon improve the activity of insulin and the cells’ ability to use glucose, which helps to lower fasting blood glucose levels. Other spices that can positively influence blood sugar levels include chili powder, coriander, cumin, fenugreek, ginger, mustard, parsley, rosemary, and sage.[35],[36],[37]

Through the holidays and beyond, make it a priority to incorporate all of these foods in regular rotation, aiming to include several of them daily. The beauty is that their effects are cumulative—even small amounts of a variety of these foods consumed regularly can go far in maintaining a healthy blood sugar balance, and supporting your long-term health.

Recipes

Vinegar Braised Red Cabbage

Oyster Stuffing


References

[1] Singleton JR, Smith AG, Bromberg MB. Increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in patients with painful sensory neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 2011;24(8):1448-1453.

[2] Guideline for the Management of Postmeal Glucose. International Diabetes Federation. 2007. Available at: http://www.idf.org/webdata/docs/Guideline_PMG_final.pdf

[3] Bardini G, Dicembrini I, Cresci B, Rotella CM. Inflammation markers and metabolic characteristics of subjects with one-hour plasma glucose levels. Diabetes Care. 2009; doi:10.2337/dc09-1342.

[4] Batty GD, Kivimäki, Davey Smith G, Marmot MG, Shipley MJ. Post-challenge blood glucose concentration and stroke mortality rates in non-diabetic men in London: 38-year follow-up of the original Whitehall prospective cohort study. Diabetologia. 2008;51(7):1123-1126.

[5] Batty GD, Kivimäki, Davey Smith G, Marmot MG, Shipley MJ. Post-challenge blood glucose concentration and stroke mortality rates in non-diabetic men in London: 38-year follow-up of the original Whitehall prospective cohort study. Diabetologia. 2008;51(7):1123-1126.

[6] Selvin E, Coresh J, Golden SH, Brancati FL, Folsom AR, Steffes MW. Glycemic control and coronary heart disease risk in persons with and without diabetes: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(16):1910-1916.

[7] Challem J, Hunninghake R. Stop Prediabetes Now. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2007.

[8] Fallon W. As We See It: What you don’t know about blood sugar. LE Magazine. January 2004. Available at: http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2004/jan2004_awsi_04.htm

[9] Bjørnholt JV, Erikssen G, Aaser E, et al. Fasting blood glucose: an underestimated risk factor for cardiovascular death. Results from a 22-year follow-up of healthy nondiabetic men. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(1):45-9.

[10] Ebbesson SO, Risica PM, Ebbesson LO, Kennish JM, Tejero ME. Omega-3 fatty acids improve glucose tolerance and components of the metabolic syndrome in Alaskan Eskimos: the Alaskan Siberia project. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005;64(4): 396-408.

[11] Hutchins H, Vega CP. Symposium Highlights – Omega-3 fatty Acids: Recommendations for therapeutics and prevention. Medscape General Medicine. 2005;7(4):18.

[12] Challem J, Hunninghake R. Stop Prediabetes Now. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2007.

[13] Weng LC, Lee NJ, Yeh WT, Ho LT, Pan WH. Lower intake of magnesium and dietary fiber increases the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Taiwanese. J Formos Med Assoc. 2012;111(11):651-9.

[14] http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phytochemicals/fiber/

[15] CNRS (Délégation Paris Michel-Ange). How fiber prevents diabetes, obesity. ScienceDaily. January 14, 2014. Available at: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140114090822.htm

[16] Gao Z, Yin J, Zhang J, et al. Butyrate improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in mice. Diabetes. 2009;58(7):1509-1517.

[17] Lin HV, Frassetto A, Kowalik Jr EJ, et al. Butyrate and propionate protect against diet-induced obesity and regulate gut hormones via free fatty acid receptor 3-independent mechanisms. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(4):e35240.

[18] Guyenet S. Buytric Acid: an ancient controller of metabolism, inflammation and stress resistance? Whole Health Source website. December 7, 2009. Available at: http://wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2009/12/butyric-acid-ancient-controller-of.html

[19] Ghosh D, Konishi T. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts: role in diabetes and eye function. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(2):200-208.

[20] Wu X, Beecher GR, Holden JM, et al. Concentrations of anythocyanins in common foods in the United States and estimation of normal consumption. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:4069-4075.

[21] Wedic NM, Pan A, Cassidy A, et al. Dietary flavonoid intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(4):925-933.

[22] Jennings A, Welch AA, Spector T, Macgregor A, Cassidy A. Intakes of anthocyanins and flavones are associated with biomarkers of insulin resistance and inflammation in women. J Nutr. 2014;144(2):202-208.

[23] Challem J, Hunninghake R. Stop Prediabetes Now. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2007.

[24] Jang HJ, Ridgeway SD, Kim JA. Effects of the green tea polyphenol and epigallocatechin-3-gallate on high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metabl. 2013;305(12):E1444-1451.

[25] Yang J, Mao QX, XuHX, Ma X, Zeng CY. Tea consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis update. BMJ Open. 2014;4(7):e005632.

[26] Östman E, Granfeldt Y, Persson L, Björck I. Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2005;59:983-988.

[27] Johnston CS, Kim CM, Buller AJ. Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(1):281-282.

[28] Brighenti F, Castellani G, Benini L, et al. Effect of neutralized and native vinegar on blood glucose and acetate response to a  mixed meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49(4):242-247.

[29] Jaminet P. How to minimize hyperglycemic toxicity. Perfect Health Diet website. October 20, 2011. Available at: http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2011/10/how-to-minimize-hyperglycemic-toxicity/.  Accessed August 18, 2014.

[30] Kirpitch AR, Maryniuk MD. The 2 R’s of glycemic index: recommendations, research, and the real world. Clinical Diabetes. 2011;29(4):155-159.

[31] Aloulou Am Hamden K, Elloumi D, et al. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. BMC complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012;12:63.

[32] El-Demerdash FM, Yousef MI, Abou El-Naga NI. Biochemical study on the hypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2005;43:57-63.

[33] Mahesar H, Bhutto MA, Khand AA, Narejo NT. Garlic used as an alternative medicine to control diabetic mellitius in alloxan-induced male rabbits. Pak J Physiol. 2010;6(1): 39-41.

[34] Mateljan G. The World’s Healthiest Foods. Seattle, WA; 2007.

[35]Aggarwal BB, Yost D. Healing Spices. New York, NY: Sterling Publishing Co; 2011.

[36] Arablou T, Aryaeian N, Valizadeh M, Sharifi F, Hosseinni A, Djalali M. The effect of ginger consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and some inflammatory markers in patients with types 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014;65(4):515-20.

[37]Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Talaei B, Jalali BA, Najarzadeh A, Mozayan MR. The effect of ginger powder supplementation on insulin resistance and glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2014;22(1):9-16.