Body Care - Things We Won’t Carry and Why

Our Body Care cares back.

What we put on our skin, brush our teeth with, wash our hair and hands with, and use as deodorants are as important to our health as what we eat. That’s why we created a Body Care Department with a conscience; it’s the clean with less of the crud. We partner with companies that are truly working to formulate products with the cleanest ingredients possible. Our quality standards experts examine every label and meet regularly to evaluate and review specific ingredients and address issues and concerns. We set the (soap) bar high, with one of the strictest ingredient standards around, because your health and the health of the planet, depend on it. What we don’t allow in our body care products is just as important as what we do. Below is the growing list of ingredients you’ll never find lurking in our Body Care Department.

 

Grandmothered & Limited Ingredients 

As new research becomes available, an ingredient that might not have been considered problematic may now be an ingredient of concern or unacceptable. Read more about grandmothered and limited ingredients.

Body Care Ingredients We Won’t Carry

Please see "Hydroquinone" for more information.

Please see "Hydroquinone" for more information.

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information.

Please see "Hydroquinone" for more information.

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information.

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

  • Acetone is a denaturant, fragrance ingredient, and solvent used in nail polish remover.
  • It is classified as a skin, eye, and respiratory irritant.[i]
  • There is moderate evidence associating acetone with human neurotoxicity.[ii] [iii]

 


[i] EWG skin deep®: what is acetone. Retrieved February 16th, 2021 from https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredients/700081-acetone/

[ii] Ramu, A., Rosenbaum, J., Blaschke, T.F. (1978 Nov). Disposition of acetone following acute acetone intoxication. West j Med, 129(5), 429-432.. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1238409/

[iii] Mitran, E., Callender, T., Orha, B., Dragnea, P., & Botezatu, G. (1997). Neurotoxicity associated with occupational exposure to acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and cyclohexanone. Environmental research, 73(1-2), 181–188. https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.1997.3703

Please see "Mono- and diglycerides" for more information. 

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information.

  • The sweetener agave is composed of 75% to 85% free fructose.[i] This is higher than the amount of fructose found in high fructose corn syrup which comes in at around 55% fructose. 
  • When fructose is absorbed, it goes directly to the liver where it is converted into fat (aka triglycerides).[ii] This translates into elevated blood triglycerides (a risk factor for cardiovascular disease), increased visceral fat, and, over time, increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).[iii] [iv] 
  • Unlike other carbohydrates, fructose does not suppress the production of the hunger hormone ghrelin but still stimulates reward in the brain which leads to excessive consumption.[v]
  • Agave syrup (aka nectar) is extracted, heat treated, enzyme treated, refined, clarified, demineralized, deodorized and concentrated.[vi] It is highly processed in a manner similar to the processes used for high fructose corn syrup and refined sugar.
  • Agave is acceptable in body care products that are not intended for oral or lip care. 

 


[i] Willems J, Low N. Major carbohydrate, polyol, and oligosaccharide profiles of agave syrup. Application of this data to authenticity analysis. J Agric Food Chem. 2012; 3(60): 8745-8754

[ii] Bray GA. Fructose: Pure, White, and Deadly? Fructose, by Any Other Name, Is a Health Hazard. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010; 4(4): 1003-1007

[iii] Teff, K. L., Elliott, S. S., Tschöp, M., Kieffer, T. J., Rader, D., Heiman, M., Townsend, R. R., Keim, N. L., D'Alessio, D., & Havel, P. J. (2004). Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism89(6), 2963–2972. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2003-031855

[iv] Jegatheesan, P. De Bandt, J-P. (2017). Fructose and NAFLD: the multifaceted aspects of fructose metabolism. Nutrients, 9(3), 230. doi: 10.3390/nu9030230

[v] Teff, K. L., Elliott, S. S., Tschöp, M., Kieffer, T. J., Rader, D., Heiman, M., Townsend, R. R., Keim, N. L., D'Alessio, D., & Havel, P. J. (2004). Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism89(6), 2963–2972. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2003-031855

[vi] Maldonado-Guevara, B.I., Mart ń del Campo, S.T., Cardador-Mart ńez, A. (2018). Production process effect on Mexican agave syrups quality: a preliminary study. J Food Res, 7(3), 50-57.  doi:10.5539/jfr.v7n3p50

Please see "Aluminum and aluminum-containing ingredients that can be absorbed through the skin" for more information.

 

 

Please see "Aluminum and aluminum-containing ingredients that can be absorbed through the skin" for more information. 

*We allow aluminum in hair color and nail polishes.

 

  • Although aluminum is naturally occurring, it has no known physiological role in the human body and can accumulate in all body tissues, including the brain, and, in high concentrations, is neurotoxic.[i]
  • The forms of aluminum utilized most commonly in commercial antiperspirant products are possibly linked to breast cancer.[ii] [iii]
  • We do allow some forms of aluminum in limited products because research shows that these forms are not readily absorbed through the skin. These forms include aluminum hydroxide, alumina, aluminum/magnesium hydroxide stearate, aluminum silicates and potassium alum (aka potassium aluminum sulfate).[iv] [v]
  • We do allow some aluminum in our hair color and nail polish brands because unfortunately at this time there are no permanent hair colors or long-lasting nail polishes that meet all of our quality standards. Despite this, we believe that our hair color and nail polish brands are a better choice for consumers and the environment than conventional products.

 


[i] Aguilar F, Autrup H, Barlow S, et al. Scientific opinion of the panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and food contact material (AFC): Safety of aluminum from dietary intake. The EFSA Journal. 2008;754:1-34. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2008.754

[ii] Becker, L. C., Boyer, I., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Hill, R. A., Klaassen, C. D., Liebler, D. C., Marks, J. G., Jr, Shank, R. C., Slaga, T. J., Snyder, P. W., & Andersen, F. A. (2016). Safety Assessment of Alumina and Aluminum Hydroxide as Used in Cosmetics (Appendix A). International journal of toxicology, 35(3 suppl), 16S–33S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581816677948

[iii] EWG Skin Deep:L What is aluminum chloride. Retrieved February 16th, 2021 from https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredients/700312-ALUMINUM_CHLORIDE-ALUMINUM_CHLORIDE-ALUMINUM_CHLORIDE-ALUMINUM_CHLORIDE/

[iv] Becker, L. C., Boyer, I., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Hill, R. A., Klaassen, C. D., Liebler, D. C., Marks, J. G., Jr, Shank, R. C., Slaga, T. J., Snyder, P. W., & Andersen, F. A. (2016). Safety Assessment of Alumina and Aluminum Hydroxide as Used in Cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 35(3 suppl), 16S–33S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1091581816677948

[v] Burnett, C.L. Safety Assessment of Silicates Used in Cosmetics: Re-review for panel review (silica066208rep). Washington, DC: Cosmetic Ingredient Review. Retrieved from https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/silicates.pdf

Please see "Aluminum and aluminum-containing ingredients that can be absorbed through the skin" for more information.

Please see "Aluminum and aluminum-containing ingredients that can be absorbed through the skin" for more information.

Please see "Aluminum and aluminum-containing ingredients that can be absorbed through the skin" for more information.

Please see "Aluminum and aluminum-containing ingredients that can be absorbed through the skin" for more information.

  • There is no evidence that body care products containing antibiotic-based ingredients are more effective than using plain soap and water for preventing infection or disease and they may actually be dangerous.[i]
  • Through a process of natural selection, bacteria that survive exposure to anti-bacterial ingredients pass their genes on, making the next generation even more resistant and tougher to combat, ultimately creating superbugs that are antibiotic resistant.
  • Antibiotic resistance is one of our most pressing global health concerns and research has shown that antibiotic ingredients in body care products are contributing to the problem.[ii]

 


[i] Stromberg, J. (2014, Jan 3).  Five reasons why you should probably stop using antibacterial soap. SmithsonianMag.com. Retrieved February 16, 2021 from https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/five-reasons-why-you-should-probably-stop-using-antibacterial-soap-180948078/

[ii] Westfall, C., Flores-Morales, A. L., Robinson, J. I., Lynch, A. J. L., Hultgren, S., Henderson, J. P., Levin, P. A. (2019). The widely used antimicrobial triclosan induces high levels of antibiotic tolerance in vitro and reduces antibiotic efficiency up to 100-fold in vivo. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 63 (5), e02312-18. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02312-18


 

 

 

 

  • We define artificial colors as any food coloring derived from a non-food source, usually coal tar or petroleum. 
  • The process of making artificial colors is extremely hazardous and can result in very dangerous chemicals in the final product. Due to this fact, the FDA requires batch certification to try and ensure there are minimal levels of dangerous chemicals in the final product. However, FDA batch-certified artificial colors may still contain upwards of 10 percent impurities and some of these impurities are known carcinogens.[i]
  • The adverse health effects linked to artificial colors currently approved for use in the United States include allergies, hyperactivity, cancer, nerve-cell toxicity, genotoxicity, and immune dysfunction.[ii]

* We do allow some artificial colors in our hair color and nail polish brands because unfortunately at this time there are no permanent hair colors or long-lasting nail polishes with natural colors. Even so, we believe that our hair color and nail polish brands are a better choice for consumers and the environment than conventional products.

 


[i] Food Dyes - Center for Science in the Public Interest. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://cspinet.org/sites/default/files/attachment/food-dyes-rainbow-of-risks.pdf

[ii] Food Dyes - Center for Science in the Public Interest. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://cspinet.org/sites/default/files/attachment/food-dyes-rainbow-of-risks.pdf

 

  • Artificial flavors are made from synthetic man-made chemicals mostly derived from petrochemical raw materials. Artificial flavor production can also be very detrimental to the environment.[i]
  • The safety of artificial flavors is still questionable. In the 1950s, new requirements for food chemicals were imposed, but because there were so many flavors and flavor additives already in use at that time, the FDA simply exempted them from testing requirements, essentially grandfathering them in as safe. Most new flavor chemicals are approved by an expert panel assembled by the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association, funded by the flavor industry.[ii]
  • Many artificial flavors are combinations of many chemicals, and many contain more adjuvants, such as emulsifiers, solvents, preservatives, and flavor modifiers, than flavoring.[iii]

 


[i] Maeda, M. Hooya, T., Yoshioka, K., Miyafuji, H. Ohno, H, Yamada, T. (2018). Vanillin production from native softwood lignin in the presence of tetrabutylammonium ion. J Wood Sci, 64, 810-815. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10086-018-1766-0

[ii] Berenstein, N. (Nov 23, 2015). The inexorable rise of synthetic flavor: a pictorial history. Popular Science website. Retrieved 11/05/20 from https://www.popsci.com/history-flavors-us-pictorial/

[iii] Hallagan, J.B., Hall, R.L. (2009). Under the conditions of intended use – new developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(2), 267-278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.11.011

  • While manufacturers are required to list the ingredients in body care products on the label, they are exempted from listing the ingredients that fall under the umbrella term “fragrance”.  There are thousands of synthetic chemicals that are used to make artificial fragrances and each individual fragrance may be composed of dozens or even hundreds of these chemicals.
  • Many of the chemicals used as artificial fragrances are known endocrine disruptors, associated with infertility and hormone issues.[i] [ii] [iii] [iv]
  • These chemicals bioaccumulate in our bodies and can be passed to offspring through breast milk and perinatal exposures. Children exposed to these chemicals in utero may be more likely to display disruptive behavior.[v] [vi]
  • Some chemicals used in artificial fragrances don't biodegrade or only partially biodegrade and have been found in the environment where they may also wreak havoc.[vii] [viii]
  • We only allow products that use natural fragrances and verify that every body care product that contains fragrance meets our strict standards.

 


[i] European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Dibutyl phthalate (DBP). Available on line: https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/13641/dbp_echa_review_report_2010_6_en.pdf

[ii] European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Available online: https://echa.europa.eu/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.003.829

[iii] Phthalates. Campaign for safe cosmetics. Retrieved February 17, 2021 from https://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/phthalates/#_edn8

[iv] Taylor, K. M., Weisskopf, M., Shine, J. (2014). Human exposure to nitro musks and the evaluation of their potential toxicity: an overview. Environ Health. 13, 14. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-14

[v] Engel, S. M., Miodovnik, A., Canfield, R. L., Zhu, C., Silva, M. J., Calafat, A. M., & Wolff, M. S. (2010). Prenatal phthalate exposure is associated with childhood behavior and executive functioning. Environmental health perspectives, 118(4), 565–571. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901470

[vi] Engel, S. M., Miodovnik, A., Canfield, R. L., Zhu, C., Silva, M. J., Calafat, A. M., & Wolff, M. S. (2010). Prenatal phthalate exposure is associated with childhood behavior and executive functioning. Environmental health perspectives, 118(4), 565–571. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901470

[vii] Taylor, K. M., Weisskopf, M., Shine, J. (2014). Human exposure to nitro musks and the evaluation of their potential toxicity: an overview. Environ Health. 13, 14. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-14

[viii] Synthetic musks. Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. Retrieved February 17, 2021 from https://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/synthetic-musks/

  • Artificial sweeteners are chemically produced sugar substitutes that are not found in nature.
  • Heavy consumption of artificial sweeteners is associated with a greater risk of being overweight and of having metabolic syndrome, an increased risk of developing cancer (even when consumed within the FDA’s established Acceptable Daily Intake), and cognitive impairment. [i] [ii] [iii] [iv] [v] [vi] [vii] [viii] [ix] [x] [xi] [xii] [xiii] Artificial sweeteners also alter the microbiota of the human gut, decreasing beneficial bacteria and increasing bacteria associated with inflammation. [xiv] [xv] [xvi]
  • Their safety is still highly questionable. Nearly all of the research that has shown them to be “safe” has been performed by the artificial sweetener industry, while independent, non-industry sponsored research has consistently found safety concerns.[xvii] [xviii]

 


[i] Fowler, S.P., Williams, K., Resendez, R.G., Hunt, K.J., Hazuda, H.P., Stern, M.P. (2012). Fueling the obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain. Obesity, 16:1894-1900. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2008.284

[ii] Hess, E.L., Myers, E.A., Swithers, S.E., Hendrick,V.E. (2018). Associations between nonnutritive sweetener intake and metabolic syndrome in adults. J Am Coll Nutr, 37(6), 487-493.  doi: 10.1080/07315724.2018.1440658

[iii] Dhingra, R., Sullivan, L., Jacques, P.F., Wang, T.J., Fox C.S., Meigs, J.B.,…Vasan, R.S. (2007). Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community. Circulation, 116, 480-488. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.689935

[iv] Lutsey, P.L., Steffen, L.M., Stevens, J. (2008). Dietary intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome. Circulation, 117,754-761. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.716159 

[v] Schernhammer, E.S., Bertrand, K.A., Birmann, B.M., Sampson, L., Willet, W.C., Feskanich, D. 2012). Consumption of artificial sweetener- and sugar-containing soda and risk of lymphoma and leukemia in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr, 96(6), 1419-1428.  doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.030833

[vi] Andreatta, M.M., Muñoz, S.E., Latieri, M.J., Eynard, A.R., Navarro, A. (2008). Artificial sweetener consumption and urinary tract tumors in Cordoba, Argentina. Preventative Medicine, 47(1), 136-139. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.03.015

[vii] Sturgeon, S.R., Hartge, P., Silverman, D.T., Kantor, A.F., Linehan, W.M., Lynch, C., Hoover, R.N. (1994). Associations between bladder cancer risk factors and tumor stage and grade at diagnosis. Epidemiology, 5(2), 218-225. DOI:10.1097/00001648-199403000-00012

[viii] Abd El-Samad, A.A. (2010). Light and electron microscopic study on the cerebellar cortex of male albino rat. Egyp J Histol, 33(3), 419-430. DOI: Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6465/68d84a55f1ba03530cd577fd7c82b47c1e23.pdf 

[ix] Soffritti, M., Belpoggi, F., Esposti, D.D., Lambertini, L. (2005). Aspartame induces lymphomas and leukaemias in rats. European Journal of Oncology, 10(2), 107-116. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225029050_Aspartame_induces_lymphomas_and_leukaemias_in_rats

[x] Soffritti, M., Belpoggi, F., Degli Esposti, D., Lambertinin, L., Tibaldi, E., Rigano, A. (2006). First experimental demonstration of the multipotential carcinogenic effects of aspartame administered in the feed to Sprague-Dawley rats. Environ Health Perspect, 114(3), 379-385. doi: 10.1289/ehp.8711

[xi] Romo-Romo, A., Aguilar-Salinas, C.A., Brito-Córdova, G.X., Gómez-Díaz, R.A., Almeda-Valdes, P. (2018). Sucralose decreases insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr, 108(3), 485-491. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy152

[xii] Abu-Taweel, G.M., Zyadah, M.A., Ajarem, J.S., Ahmad, M. (2014). Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice. Neurotoxicity and Teratology, 42 (2014), 60-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2014.02.001  

[xiii] Lindseth, G.N., Coolahan, S.E., Petros, T.V., Lindseth, P.D. (2014). Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption. Res Nurs Health, 37(3), 185-193. doi: 10.1002/nur.21595

[xiv] Bian, X., Tu, P., Chi, L., Gao, B., Ru, H., Lu, K. (2017). Saccharin induced liver inflammation in mice by altering the gut microbiota and its metabolic functions. Food and chemical Toxicology, 107, 530-539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2017.04.045

[xv] Chi, L., Bian, X., Gao, B., Tu, P., Lai, Y., Ru, H., Lu, K. (2018). Effects of the artificial sweetener neotame on the gut microbiota and fecal metabolites in mice. Molecules, 23(2), 367. doi: 10.3390/molecules23020367

[xvi] Schiffman, S.S., Nagle, H.T. (2019). Revisited: Assessing the in vivo data on low/no-calorie sweeteners and the gut microbiota. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 132, 110692. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.110692

[xvii] Mandrioli, D., Kearns, C.E., Bero, L.A. (2016). Relationship between research outcomes and risk of bias, study sponsorship, and author financial conflicts of interest in reviews of the effects of artificially sweetened beverages on weight outcome: a systematic review. PLoS One, 11(9), e0162198. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162198

[xviii] Walton, R.G. (1999). Survey of aspartame studies: correlation to outcome and funding sources. Retrieved from http://www.lightenyourtoxicload.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Dr-Walton-survey-of-aspartame-studies.pdf

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

Please see "Chemical-based sunscreens" for more information.

Please see "Antibacterial soaps, body washes, wipes, toothpastes, and hand sanitizers" for more information.

Please see "Antibacterial soaps, body washes, wipes, toothpastes, and hand sanitizers" for more information. 

Please see "Isothiazolinones" for more information. 

  • A synthetic antioxidant used as a preservative in some body care products, BHA is also listed as a known carcinogen on California's Proposition 65 list and is “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen” according to the National Toxicology Program.[i] [ii]
  • Studies indicate it may disrupt endocrine function by interfering with hormone levels.[iii] [iv]
  • At high doses BHA can be a skin and mucosa irritant.[v]

 


[i] Proposition 65. California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/proposition-65/p65list112318.pdf

[ii] National Toxicology Program. (2016, November 3). 14th report on carcinogens. US Department of Health and Human services. available at https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/whatwestudy/assessments/cancer/roc/index.html?utm_source=direct&utm_medium=prod&utm_campaign=ntpgolinks&utm_term=roc#toc1

[iii] EWG's dirty Dozen guide to food additives. (2014, November 12). Retrieved February 17, 2021, from https://www.ewg.org/research/ewg-s-dirty-dozen-guide-food-additives#butylated-hydroxyanisole

[iv] Pop, A., Kiss, B., & Loghin, F. (2013). Endocrine disrupting effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA - E320). Clujul medical (1957), 86(1), 16–20. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4462476/

[v] Panico, A., Serio, F., Bagordo, F., Grassi, T., Idolo, A., De Giorgi, M., ...De Donno, A. (2019). Skin safety and health prevention: an overview of chemicals in cosmetic products. J Prev Med Hyg, 60(1): e50-e57. doi: 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2019.60.1.1080

  • BHT is a synthetic antioxidant used as a preservative and is the chemical cousin of BHA. Although it is sometimes thought of as less toxic than BHA, it is also a chemical of concern.
  • BHT may disrupt endocrine function and its use in animal models has shown it to be toxic to the liver. Topically BHT is associated with toxic lung effects and is also a mild irritant and skin sensitizer.[i]
  • BHT is likely to accumulate in the environment and has been found in rivers, groundwater, rain, and wastewaters as well as dust and sediment samples collected from homes.[ii] [iii]
  • BHT and one of its metabolites have been found in human breast tissue.[iv]

 


[i] Lanigan, R. S., & Yamarik, T. A. (2002). Final report on the safety assessment of BHT(1). International journal of toxicology, 21 Suppl 2, 19–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/10915810290096513

 

[ii] Nieva-Echevarría, Manzanos, M.J., Goicoechea, E., Guillén, M.D. (2014). 2,6-Di-Tert-Butyl-Hydroxytoluene and its metabolites in foods. Comp Rev Food Sci and Food Safety. 14(1), 67-80. https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12121

[iii] Zhang, R., Li, C., Li, Y., Cui, X., & Ma, L. Q. (2018). Determination of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-hydroxytoluene and its transformation products in indoor dust and sediment by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with precolumn derivatization. The Science of the total environment, 619-620, 552–558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.115

[iv] Hernández, F., Portolés, T., Pitarch, E., & López, F. J. (2009). Searching for anthropogenic contaminants in human breast adipose tissues using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS, 44(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/jms.1538

  • Although bismuth oxychloride is naturally occurring in the mineral bismoclite, it is very rare and, typically, any used in cosmetics is synthetically manufactured from a byproduct of lead/copper refining combined with chloride and water.
  • It is used as a filler ingredient in cosmetics to achieve a shiny effect. Anecdotally, bismuth oxychloride causes extreme irritation, redness, burning, itching, and worsening of some skin conditions (particularly when perspiring or in hot weather).
  • There is also in vitro evidence to suggest it is toxic to human skin cells, especially at high concentrations. [i] [ii]   

 


[i] Gao, X., Zhang, X., Wang, Y., Fan, C. (2016). Effects of morphology and surface hydroxyl on the toxicity of BiOCL in human HaCaT cells. Chemosphere, 163, 438-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.08.063

[ii] Gao, X., Zhang, X., Wang, Y., Wang, Y., Peng, S., & Fan, C. (2015). An in vitro study on the cytotoxicity of bismuth oxychloride nanosheets in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association80, 52–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2015.02.018

  • BVO is most commonly made from corn or soybean oil, often partially hydrogenated versions, that has had bromine added to the fatty acids.
  • Bromine is irritating to the skin and can cause burns and blistering in high amounts.[i]
  • BVO is a highly processed oil that has no place in body care products.

 


[i] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, April 4). Facts About Bromine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 20, 2022, from https://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/bromine/basics/facts.asp

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "BHA" for more information. 

Please see "BHT" for more information. 

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information.

FDA certified color additives are generally identified by a letter prefix, the color, and then a number (e.g., FD&C Yellow #5).

Please see "Artificial colors*" for more information.

*Allowed in hair color and nail polish products.

  • Chemicals used in conventional sunscreen products protect the skin from UV damage by absorbing the sun's active UV rays and dissipating them into the skin and air through a chemical reaction.
  • Once applied, chemical-based sunscreens are absorbed into the skin and act as endocrine disruptors, altering reproductive and hormone function in humans, lab animals, and fish and other marine animals that come in contact with these chemicals in their water.[i] [ii] [iii] [iv] [v] [vi]
  • One small study found that some of the most common chemical sunscreens actually increased free-radical generation in the skin, which disrupts skin cells’ function and is one of the ways a sunburn damages the skin in the first place.[vii]
  • Chemical-based sunscreens are also bad for the environment. These chemicals contribute to the “bleaching” of the coral reefs, which causes coral to die.[viii]

 


[i] Dewalque L, Pirard C, Dubois N, Charlier C. Simultaneous determination of some phthalate metabolites, parabens and benzophenone-3 in urine by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2014;949-950:37-47.

[ii] Wang L, Kannan K. Characteristic profiles of benzonphenone-3 and its derivatives in urine of children and adults from the United States and China. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47(21):12532-8.

[iii] Kunisue T, Chen A, Buck Louis GM, et al. Urinary Concentrations of Benzophenone-type UV Filters in US Women and Their Association with Endometriosis. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46(8): 4624-4632.

[iv] Schlecht C, Klammer H, Jarry H, Wuttke W. Effects of estradiol, benzophenone-2 and benophenone-3 on the expression pattern of the estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta, the estrogen receptor-related receptor 1 (ERR1) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in adult ovariectomized rats. Toxicology. 2004;205(1-2):123-130.

[v] Krause M, Klit A, Bloomberg JM, et al. Sunscreens: are they beneficial for health? An overview of endocrine disrupting properties of UV-filters. Int J Androl. 2012;35(3):424-436.

[vi] Coronado M, De Hara H, Deng X, et al. Estrogenic activity and reproductive effects of the UV-filter oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-methanone) in fish. Aquat Toxicol. 2008;90(3):182-187.

[vii] Hanson KM, Gratton E, Bardeen CJ. Sunscreen enhancement of UV-induced reactive oxygen species in the skin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2006;41(8):1205-1212.

[viii] Danovaro R, Bongiorni L, Corinaldesi C, et al. Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116(4):441-447.

More information coming soon. 

Please see "Antibacterial soaps, body washes, wipes, toothpastes, and hand sanitizers" for more information.

  • Coal tars are thick liquids or semisolids that are a byproduct in the destructive distillation of coal to produce coke (a coal-derived fuel) and gas. Of the approximately 10,000 compounds in coal tar, only about 400 have been identified and many of those are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are toxic to cells, cause tumors, and damage DNA.[i] [ii]
  • Dermal exposure to coal tar can cause photosensitivity, burns, skin irritation, allergic reactions, clogged pores, degeneration of the outer layer of skin, and hyperpigmentation. [iii]
  • Coal tar is recognized as a carcinogen, and long-term exposure, such as occupational exposure (including nurses who, without gloves, apply topical coal tar preparations to patients), is associated with an increased risk of skin, lung, bladder, kidney, and digestive tract cancers. [iv] [v] [vi]

 


[i] Moustafa, G.-A., Xanthopoulou, E., Riza, E., Linos, A. (2015). Skin disease after occupational exposure to coal tar: a review of the scientific literature. Int J Dermatology, 54(8), 868-879. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.12903

[ii] Coal tar. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2021, from https://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/coal-tar/

[iii] Moustafa, G.-A., Xanthopoulou, E., Riza, E., Linos, A. (2015). Skin disease after occupational exposure to coal tar: a review of the scientific literature. Int J Dermatology, 54(8), 868-879. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.12903

[iv] Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch - Cancer-Causing Substances. National Cancer Institute. (2018, December 28). https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/substances/coal-tar.

[v] IARC Monographs Working Group. (2012). Chemical Agents and Related Occupations: A Review of Human Carcinogens (Vol 100 F). International Agency on Cancer Research. https://publications.iarc.fr/123

[vi] National Toxicology Program. (2011). 12th Report on Carcinogens. US Department of Health and Human Services. https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/proposition-65/crnr/comments/12throc-complete.pdf

  • A highly processed product used by manufacturers as a cheap substitute for real cocoa butter. It is often made with harsh chemical solvents and/or catalysts and is chemically modified, which damages the oil base it starts with.
  • Cocoa butter is a natural product long valued for its skin moisturizing capabilities. There is no need to substitute this treasured ingredient with a highly processed cocoa butter substitute in body care products.
  • A highly processed product used by manufacturers as a cheap substitute for real cocoa butter. It is often made with harsh chemical solvents and/or catalysts and is chemically modified, which damages the palm oil base it starts with.
  • Cocoa butter is a natural product long valued for its skin moisturizing capabilities. There is no need to substitute this treasured ingredient with a highly processed cocoa butter substitute in body care products.
  • Siloxanes belong to a class of chemicals called volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs evaporate quickly into the air when applied to the skin. Once in the air, VOC's react with other compounds to form ozone and particulate matter, both of which are types of pollution that have serious effects on air quality and human health.[i]
  • VOCs from body care products not only pollute our indoor air but can circulate around the entire globe. Air samples in the Arctic have even been found to contain cyclic siloxanes.[ii]
  • Because cyclic siloxanes are so detrimental, their use has been limited in the European Union.[iii]
  • One group of researchers estimated that approximately 20% of the total VOC emissions in the air found in a big city come from personal care product emissions.[iv]
  • Cyclic siloxanes may also pose human health concerns. For instance, D4 (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane) has a weak estrogenic activity, while D5 (cyclopentasiloxane) increased uterine tumors in animal studies and may have a negative effect on the nervous system and hormone levels.[v]

 


[i] Coggon, M., Vergoth, K. (2018, April 30). Personal Plumes. CIRES website. Retrieved December 22, 2020 from https://cires.colorado.edu/news/personal-plumes

[ii] Bienkowski, B. (2013, April 30). Chemicals from personal care products in Chicago air. Scientific American. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/chemicals-from-personal-care-products-pervasive-in-chicago-air/

[iii] European Commission, Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs. (2018). Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/35 of 10 January 2018 amending Annex XVII to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) as regards octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (‘D4’) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (‘D5’) (Text with EEA relevance.) Official Journal of the European Union, L 6. Retrieved from http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2018/35/oj

[iv] Coggon, M. M., McDonald, B. C., Vlasenko, A., Veres, P. R., Bernard, F., Koss, A.B., …de Gouw, J. A. (2018). Diurnal variability and emission pattern of decamethylcylopentasiloxane (D5) from the application of personal care products in two North American Cities. Environ Sci Technol. 52(10), 5610-5618. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b00506

[v] California Environmental Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (CECBP). (2008, December 4-5). Cyclosiloxanes. https://biomonitoring.ca.gov/downloads/consideration-potential-designated-chemicals-cyclosiloxanes

Please see "Cyclic siloxanes" for more information. 

Please see "Artificial colors*" for more information.

*Allowed in hair color and nail polish products.

Please see "Cyclic siloxanes" for more information. 

Please see "Cyclic siloxanes" for more information. 

Please see "Cyclic siloxanes" for more information. 

Please see "Cyclic siloxanes" for more information. 

Please see "Mono- and diglycerides" for more information. 

Please see "Phthalates" for more information. 

Please see "Cyclic siloxanes" for more information. 

  • Regular, daily exposure to DEET has led to complaints of chest pain/wheezing, muscle cramps, skin rashes, dizziness, disorientation, and difficulty concentrating.[i]
  • In animal models, regular skin exposure to DEET leads to brain cell death in ways that may contribute to motor deficits and learning and memory dysfunction.[ii] Excessive exposure to DEET has been known to cause neurological problems in humans, such as seizures, uncoordinated movements, agitation, aggressive behavior, low blood pressure, and skin irritation.[iii]
  • Seizures are of particular concern in children and although there is no conclusive opinion at this time, some research has found an association between DEET skin exposure and seizures.[iv]
  • There are many insect repellant products that are DEET-free on our shelves that we are comfortable offering to the community.

 


[i] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (n.d.). Public Health Statement for DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta- toluamide). Center for Disease Control. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/TSP/ToxProfiles/ToxProfiles.aspx?id=1451&tid=201

[ii] Abdel-Rahman, A., Shetty, A.K., Abou-Donia, M.B. (2001). Subchronic dermal application of N,N-diethyl m-toluamide and permethrin two adult rats, alone or in combination, causes diffuse neuronal cell death and cytoskeletal abnormalities in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and Purkinje neuron loss in the cerebellum. Experimental neurology, 172(1), 153- 171. https://doi.org/10.1006/exnr.2001.7807

[iii] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (n.d.). Public Health Statement for DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta- toluamide). Center for Disease Control. https://wwwn.cdc.gov/TSP/ToxProfiles/ToxProfiles.aspx?id=1451&tid=201

[iv] Briassoulis, G., Narlioglou, M., Hatzis, T. (2001). Toxic encephalopathy associated with the use of DEET insect repellents: a case analysis of its toxicity in children. Hum Exp Toxicol, 20(1), 8-14. https://doi.org/10.1191%2F096032701676731093

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "DHEA" for more information. 

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

  • DHEA is a hormone produced chiefly by the adrenal glands that has many regulatory functions in the body.
  • There are numerous potential side effects with using supplemental DHEA. For example, an excess of DHEA can promote tumor growth, encourage liver toxicity, and disrupt hormone balance, which can produce a wide range of symptoms including facial hair on women and breast swelling in men.[i] [ii] [iii]
  • Naturopaths and medical doctors do not recommend supplementing with DHEA unless blood levels have been checked and proven low.
  • It is for these reasons that we do not sell DHEA and feel that self-supplementation with DHEA, and self-diagnosis of low DHEA levels, is inappropriate and potentially dangerous.

 


[i] Dehyroepiandrosterone and Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. University of Rochester Medical Center Health Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 25, 2021. https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=167&contentid=dhea

[ii] Dehydroepiandrosterone. (n.d.). Retrieved January 25, 2021, from https://www.stlukes-stl.com/health-content/medicine/33/000299.htm#:~:text=High%20doses%20of%20DHEA%20may,liver%20disease%20should%20avoid%20DHEA.

[iii] Rutkowski, K., Sowa, P., Rutkowska-Talipska, J., Kuryliszyn-Moskal, A. Rutowski, R. (2014). Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA): Hypes or Hopes.Drugs, 74, 1195-1207.

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "Mono- and diglycerides" for more information. 

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information. 

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information.

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information.

Please see "Phthalates" for more information.

Please see "Cyclic siloxanes" for more information. 

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information. 

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

Please see "Mono- and diglycerides" for more information. 

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Artificial colors*" for more information.

*Allowed in hair color and nail polish products. 

  • Although formaldehyde may be added directly to products as a preservative, it is also often released over time from certain preservatives. These preservatives are used in a wide variety of products including nail polish, creams, gels, liquids, and baby products.
  • Consumers are exposed to it through body care products not only when products containing it are put directly on the skin but also when it is released into the air from these products.[i]
  • Both the National Toxicology Program and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), recognize formaldehyde as a human carcinogen. [ii] [iii]
  • Formaldehyde and formaldehyde donors are widely recognized as some of the most common ingredients in skin care products to cause allergic skin reactions and skin sensitization.[iv] [v] [vi]

 


[i] International Agency for Research on Cancer (June 2004). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Volume 88 (2006): Formaldehyde, 2-Butoxyethanol and 1-tert-Butoxypropan-2-ol. Retrieved June 10, 2011, from: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol88/index.php

[ii] National Toxicology Report. (2016, November 3). 14th report on carcinogens. US Department of Health and Human services. https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/whatwestudy/assessments/cancer/roc/index.html

[iii] International Agency for Research on Cancer (June 2004). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Volume 88 (2006): Formaldehyde, 2-Butoxyethanol and 1-tert-Butoxypropan-2-ol. Retrieved June 10, 2011, from: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol88/index.php

[iv] Boyvat, A., Akyol, A., & Gürgey, E. (2005). Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey. Contact dermatitis, 52(6), 329–332. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0105-1873.2005.00607.x

[v] Pratt, M. D., Belsito, D. V., DeLeo, V. A., Fowler, J. F., Jr, Fransway, A. F., Maibach, H. I., Marks, J. G., Mathias, C. G., Rietschel, R. L., Sasseville, D., Sherertz, E. F., Storrs, F. J., Taylor, J. S., & Zug, K. (2004). North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch-test results, 2001-2002 study period. Dermatitis : contact, atopic, occupational, drug, 15(4), 176–183.

[vi] de Groot, A. C., White, I. R., Flyvholm, M. A., Lensen, G., & Coenraads, P. J. (2010). Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 1. Characterization, frequency and relevance of sensitization, and frequency of use in cosmetics. Contact dermatitis, 62(1), 2–17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0536.2009.01615.x

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information. 

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Cyclic siloxanes" for more information. 

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Chemical-based sunscreens" for more information. 

  • The hydrogenation process turns a polyunsaturated fat into a saturated fat. This benefits manufacturers because it turns an inexpensive polyunsaturated vegetable oil (such as cottonseed or soybean oil) into a more stable saturated fat with a longer shelf life.
  • To create a hydrogenated oil, a refined oil is combined with a heavy metal catalyst and heated to high temperatures under high pressure while hydrogen is pumped in. The process not only damages the fat, but also creates a heavy environmental toll.[i]
  • While hydrogenated oils definitely benefit manufacturers’ bottom lines, there is not much research on the long-term effects of topically applied hydrogenated oils. There are also numerous naturally occurring saturated fats that have extensive safety profiles (e.g., coconut oil) that can be used instead.  
  • We have allowed a few particular hydrogenated oils that serve specific purposes, such as plant-sourced squalane, fatty alcohols, and polyhydroxystearic acid, due to a lack of viable alternatives for these ingredients.

 


[i] Genchi, G., Carocci, A., Lauria, G., Sinicropi, M.S., Catalano, A. (2020). Human health and environmental toxicity. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(3), 679. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17030679

  • Hydroquinone is an aromatic organic compound used as a fragrance ingredient, hair colorant, reducing agent, and skin bleaching agent.
  • Prolonged use of hydroquinone, even at levels approved by the FDA, may cause ochronosis—a very difficult-to-treat and sometimes irreversible skin condition that causes course textured blueish-grey patches and skin lesions. [i]
  • In animal studies, hydroquinone has caused DNA damage that could lead to cancer and was mutagenic in in vitro systems.[ii]

 


[i] Qorbani, A., Mubasher, A., Sarantopoulos, G. P., Nelson, S., & Fung, M. A. (2020). Exogenous Ochronosis (EO): Skin lightening cream causing rare caviar-like lesion with banana-like pigments; review of literature and histological comparison with endogenous counterpart. Autopsy & case reports, 10(4), e2020197. https://doi.org/10.4322/acr.2020.197

[ii] IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Re-evaluation of Some Organic Chemicals, Hydrazine and Hydrogen Peroxide. Lyon (FR): International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1999. (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, No. 71.) Hydroquinone. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499038/  

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information.

  • Interesterified fats are highly processed fats that have had their chemical structure rearranged. They have become popular as a replacement for trans fats.
  • They allow manufacturers to use cheap oils, often those that are genetically modified, such as soybean oil, in place of higher quality natural fats.
  • There is no need for these unnatural fats as there are a multitude of naturally occurring fats with skin-loving properties.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

  • Isopropyl alcohol is a common solvent used as an anti-foaming agent, fragrance ingredient, and a viscosity decreasing/controlling agent.  It can cause skin, eye, and/or lung irritation, and possibly organ system toxicity.[i] 
  • Isopropyl alcohol is a synthetic alcohol that is produced as a by-product of petroleum production.[ii]  

 


[i] Environmental Working Group, The Power of Information, EWG’s Skin Deep Cosmetic Database http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/703198/ISOPROPYL_ALCOHOL/

[ii] Wade, L. G. (n.d.). Isopropyl alcohol. Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/science/isopropyl-alcohol.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

  • Isothiazolinones are used as preservatives in some skin care products and cosmetics, but they are well recognized as skin sensitizers that commonly cause allergic dermatitis. Methylisothiazolinone was even named the “Contact Allergen of the Year” in 2013 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society.[i] [ii]
  • The European Union has banned their use in leave-on cosmetics, citing no safe concentration that does not pose a risk of inducing contact allergy.[iii]
  • Isothiazolinones may pose an environmental risk too. The processes used to prepare isothiazolinones use toxic and corrosive compounds. Furthermore, as isothiazolinones break down, their degradation products can be more toxic and persist longer in the environment than the isothiazolinones themselves.[iv]    

 


[i] Aerts, O., Goossens, A., Lambert, J., Lepoittevin, J.-P. (2017, Mar-Apr). Contact allergy caused by isothiazolinone derivatives: an overview of non-cosmetic and unusual cosmetic sources. European Journal of Dermatology, 27, 2. Retrieved from: https://www.jle.com/fr/revues/ejd/e-docs/contact_allergy_caused_by_isothiazolinone_derivatives_an_overview_of_non_cosmetic_and_unusual_cosmetic_sources_308956/article.phtml

[ii] Castanedo-Tardana, M. Zug, K. (2013 Jan/Feb). Methylisothiazolinone. Dermatitis, 24(1), 2-6. doi: 10.1097/DER.0b013e31827edc73 Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/dermatitis/Fulltext/2013/01000/Methylisothiazolinone.2.aspx

[iii] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety. (2013, Dec 12). Opinion on Methylisothiazolinone (P94). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_145.pdf

[iv] Silva, V., Silva, C., Soares, P., Garrido, E.M., Borges, F., Garrido, J. (2020 Feb). Isothiazolinone biocides: chemistry, biological, and toxicity profiles. Molecules, 25(4), 991. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390%2Fmolecules25040991

Please see "Isothiazolinones" for more information. 

Please see "Mono- and diglycerides" for more information. 

Please see "Talc" for more information

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information. 

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information. 

Please see "Isothiazolinones" for more information. 

Please see "Isothiazolinones" for more information. 

Please see "Parabens" for more information.
  • Mineral oil, petroleum, and petrolatum are liquid or semi-solid mixtures of hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. They are commonly used as a fragrance ingredient, skin protectant, hair/skin conditioning ingredient, and solvent.
  • Although it is commonly believed that mineral oil used in body care products is not absorbed into the body through the skin, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons have been found in the fat and breast milk of women, and mineral oil in cosmetics was found to be a major contributor.[i] [ii]
  • Mineral oil, petroleum, and petrolatum are all petroleum-based products. The exploration, extraction and transportation of petroleum has numerous and often severe environmental consequences, including devastation of land and marine ecosystems, polluting air and waterways, and affecting plant and animal life, including humans. Furthermore, petroleum is not readily biodegradable and persists in the environment.[iii] [iv]

 


[i] Petry, T., Bury, D., Fautz, R., Hauser, M., Huber, B., Markowetz, A., …Tiechert, T. (2017). Review of data on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic applications. Toxicology Letters, 280(5), 70-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.07.899

[ii] Concin, N., Hofstetter, G., Plattner, B., Tomovski, C., Fiselier, K., Gerritzen, K., …Grob, K. (2011). Evidence for cosmetics as a source of mineral oil contamination in women. Journal of Women’s Health, 20(11), 1713-1719. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2011.2829

[iii] U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis. Oil and the environment - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). (n.d.). https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/oil-and-petroleum-products/oil-and-the-environment.php.

[iv] Aluyor, E.O., Ori-jesu, M. (2009). Biodegradation of mineral oils – a review. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(6), 915-920. https://academicjournals.org/article/article1379770460_Aluyor%20and%20Ori-jesu.pdf

  • The mono- and diglycerides used in body care products are highly processed ingredients made under high heat and high pressure which damages the fats that make them up.
  • The process of creating them can produce environmentally undesirable by-products.[i]
  • Mono- and diglycerides contain trace amounts of partially-hydrogenated oils (aka trans fats).[ii]

 


[i] Rarokar NR, Menghani S, Kerzare D, Khedekar B. Progress in synthesis of monoglycerides for use in pharmaceuticals. J Exp Food Chem. 2017 July; 3(3). https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/progress-in-synthesis-of-monoglycerides-for-use-in-food-andpharmaceuticals-2472-0542-1000128.pdf

[ii] Enig M. Mono- and di-glycerides. Weston A Price Foundation. December 30, 2004. https://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/know-your-fats/mono-and-di-glycerides/

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information.

  • Many important human drugs are at risk of becoming obsolete due to increasing development of antibiotic resistance. Because of this, we feel strongly that antibiotics should be reserved for medicinal uses and not preserving cosmetics.
  • Nisin is an antibiotic-like preservative. There is evidence to suggest that bacteria exposed to nisin could become resistant.[i] [ii] [iii] 
  • Nisin may be produced using genetically modified (GM) bacteria.[iv] [v] [vi]

 


[i] Mantovani HC, Russell JB. Nisin resistance of Streptococcus bovis. Appl Environ Microbial. 2001 Feb;67(2):808-813. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC92651/

[ii] Sun Z, Zhong J, Liang X et al. Novel mechanism for nisin resistance via proteolytic degradation of nisin by the nisin resistance protein NSR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 May;53(5):1964-1973. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2681560/  

[iii] Blake KL, Randall CP, O’Neill AJ. In vitro studies indicate a high resistance potential for the lantibiotic nisin in Staphylococcus aureus and define a genetic basis for nisin resistance. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2011 May;55(5):2362-2368. https://aac.asm.org/content/aac/55/5/2362.full.pdf

[iv] Hansen JN. Nisin as a model food preservative. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1994;34(1):69-93. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8142045

[v] Özel, B., Şimşek, Ö., Akçelik, M., Saris, P.E. (2018). Innovative approaches to nisin production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 102(15), 6299-6307. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9098-y

[vi] Kallscheuer N. Engineered microorganisms for the production of food additives approved by the European Union—A systematic analysis. Front Microbiol. 2018;9:1746. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085563/

Please see "Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE)" for more information.
  • NPE is highly toxic to aquatic life. It breaks down into nonylphenol, a chemical that is difficult to remediate and persists in the environment with many detrimental effects. [i]
  • Nonylphenol is an endocrine disrupting chemical that is toxic to and can cause feminization in aquatic life.
  • It can contaminate water, soil, and air and has been associated with an increased risk of breast, ovarian, uterine, pituitary, and testicular cancer in humans.[ii]

 


[i] Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.). Risk Management for Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates. EPA. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from https://www.epa.gov/assessing-and-managing-chemicals-under-tsca/risk-management-nonylphenol-and-nonylphenol-ethoxylates

[ii] Noorimotlagh, Z., Mirzaee, S. A., Martinez, S. S., Rachoń, D., Hoseinzadeh, M., & Jaafarzadeh, N. (2020). Environmental exposure to nonylphenol and cancer progression Risk-A systematic review. Environmental research184, 109263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109263

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

Please see "Cyclic siloxanes" for more information. 

Please see "Chemical-based sunscreens" for more information. 

Please see "Chemical-based sunscreens" for more information. 

Please see "Chemical-based sunscreens" for more information. 

Please see "Isothiazolinones" for more information. 

Please see "Chemical-based sunscreens" for more information. 

  • Oxystearin starts with a base of hydrogenated cottonseed or soybean oil that is then processed even further. [i]
  • Both cottonseed and soybean oil are very commonly genetically modified.
  • Oxystearin is a highly processed additive that is not necessary to create effective and safe body care products.  

 


[i] FDA, HHS Direct food substances affirmed as generally recognized as safe: cocoa butter substitute derived from high-oleic safflower or sunflower oil. 21 CFR § 184 (1996). Retrieved from https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-1996-07-10/pdf/96-17542.pdf

Please see "Hydroquinone" for more information.

Please see "Hydroquinone" for more information.

  • Parabens are widely used preservatives that have been shown to act as weak xenoestrogens and may cause hormone disruption.[i] [ii]
  • They are recognized as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and have been associated with hormonal changes that may contribute to fertility issues in humans. [iii] [iv]
  • Parabens have been found in breast cancer tissue, and some research has suggested they may contribute to breast cancer gene expression.[v]
  • Parabens in personal care products are absorbed through the skin and are believed to be the biggest contributor to our overall paraben exposure. Parabens have been detected in nearly all Americans tested, including infants, children, adults, and pregnant women and in breast milk.[vi]  
  • Even though we have relatively effective treatments to remove parabens from wastewater, they are so ubiquitous that they are still widely found in water and aquatic animals. [vii] [viii] They also appear to react with chlorine in water to create halogenated by-products that appear to be more stable and persistent, making them an even greater environmental threat. [ix] [x]  

 


[i] n.a. Analysis finds hormone disruptor used in cosmetics in nearly 50 different foods. Environmental Working Group. April 8, 2015. https://www.ewg.org/release/analysis-finds-hormone-disruptor-used-cosmetics-nearly-50-different-foods  

[ii] Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. 67th report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43592/WHO_TRS_940_eng.pdf?sequence=1

[iii] Nishihama, Y., Yoshinaga, J., Iida, A., Konishi, S., Imai, H., Yoneyama, M., Nakajima, D., & Shiraishi, H. (2016). Association between paraben exposure and menstrual cycle in female university students in Japan. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)63, 107–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.05.010

[iv] Smith, K.W., Souter, I., Dimitriadis, I., Ehrlich, S., Williams, P.L., Calafat, A.M., Hauser, R. (2013 Nov-Dec). Urinary paraben concentrations and ovarian aging among women from a fertility center. Environ Health Perspect, 121(11-12), 1299-1305. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1205350

[v] Amin, M. M., Tabatabaeian, M., Chavoshani, A., Amjadi, E., Hashemi, M., Ebrahimpour, K., Klishadi, R., Khazaei, S., & Mansourian, M. (2019). Paraben Content in Adjacent Normal-malignant Breast Tissues from Women with Breast Cancer. Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES32(12), 893–904. https://doi.org/10.3967/bes2019.112

[vi] Stoiber, T. (2019, Apr 9). What are parabens, and why don’t they belong in cosmetics? Environmental Working Group. Retrieved from: https://www.ewg.org/what-are-parabens

[vii] Haman, C., Dauchy, X., Rosin, C., & Munoz, J. F. (2015). Occurrence, fate and behavior of parabens in aquatic environments: a review. Water research68, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.09.030

[viii] Nowak, K., Ratajczak-Wrona, W., Górska, M., & Jabłońska, E. (2018). Parabens and their effects on the endocrine system. Molecular and cellular endocrinology474, 238–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2018.03.014

[ix] Canosa, P., Rodríguez, I., Rubi, E., Negreira, N., Cela, R. (2006 Aug 4). Formation of halogenated by-products of parabens in chlorinated water. Analytica Chimica Acta, 575, 1, 106-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.05.068

[x] Haman, C., Dauchy, X., Rosin, C., & Munoz, J. F. (2015). Occurrence, fate and behavior of parabens in aquatic environments: a review. Water research68, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.09.030

  • Partially hydrogenated oils (aka trans fats) are created by mixing an inexpensive refined oil (such as cottonseed or soybean oil) with a heavy metal catalyst and then heating to high temperature under high pressure while hydrogen is pumped in. The process not only damages the fat but also creates a heavy environmental toll. [i]  
  • This process increases the saturation of a polyunsaturated oil and thus increases its melting point, which benefits manufacturers because they can buy cheap oils (such as cottonseed or soybean oil) instead of using oils that are naturally more saturated (such as coconut oil) to create their products.
  • While partially hydrogenated oils definitely benefit manufacturers’ bottom lines, there is not much research on the long-term effects of applying these oils topically. There are also numerous naturally occurring fats and oils that have extensive safety profiles that can be used instead.
  • Partially hydrogenated oils have been removed from the food supply, but no such ban has been considered for products applied to the skin. We believe these highly processed oils should not have a place in our skin care products.

 

 


[i] Genchi, G., Carocci, A., Lauria, G., Sinicropi, M.S., Catalano, A. (2020). Human health and environmental toxicity. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(3), 679. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17030679

While partially hydrogenated oils definitely benefit manufacturers’ bottom lines, there is not much research on the long-term effects of applying these oils topically. There are also numerous naturally occurring fats and oils that have extensive safety profiles that can be used instead. Partially hydrogenated oils have been removed from the food supply, but no such ban has been considered for products applied to the skin. We believe these highly processed oils should not have a place in our skin care products.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

  • Phenoxyethanol is made from toxic ingredients that can be dangerous to the people who work with them and those who live around industrial areas that use them.[i] [ii] [iii]
  • Some studies have found an association between maternal phenoxyethanol exposure and an increased time to conceive and altered hormone levels in offspring after birth.[iv] [v]
  • Phenoxyethanol is listed on the American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergen Series 2020 as one of the top 100 skin allergens to screen for and there are reports of allergic skin reactions from exposure to it.[vi] [vii] [viii]

 


[i] https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/2-phenoxyethanol#section=Methods-of-Manufacturing

[ii] World Health Organization. (2017, April). ICSC 0070 - phenol. http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics0070.htm.

[iii] Ethylene oxide - Cancer-causing substances. National Cancer Institute. (2018, December 28). https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/substances/ethylene-oxide.  

[iv] Garlantézec, R., Warembourg, C., Monfort, C., Labat, L., Pulkkinen, J., Bonvallot, N., Multigner, L., Chevrier, C., & Cordier, S. (2013). Urinary glycol ether metabolites in women and time to pregnancy: the PELAGIE cohort. Environmental health perspectives121(10), 1167–1173. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206103

[v] Warembourg, C., Binter, A. C., Giton, F., Fiet, J., Labat, L., Monfort, C., Chevrier, C., Multigner, L., Cordier, S., & Garlantézec, R. (2018). Prenatal exposure to glycol ethers and sex steroid hormones at birth. Environment international113, 66–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.01.013

[vi] Schalock, P.C., Dunnick, C.A., Nodorost, S., Brod, B., Warshaw, E., Mowad, C., Scheman, A., ACDS Core Allergen Series Committee. (2020, Sept/Oct). American contact dermatitis society core allergen series: 2020 update. Dermatitis. 31(5), 279-282. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?client=internal-element-cse&cx=015381214919528163032:jzmsne4ujro&q=https://www.contactderm.org/UserFiles/file/American_Contact_Dermatitis_Society_Core_Allergen.2-1_v1.pdf&sa=U&ved=2ahUKEwiyjouqoazyAhVUaM0KHXQwBEUQFjACegQIABAC&usg=AOvVaw0nMVffV0YVlARGTefry68K

[vii] Aranzabal, M. A., Arruti, N., Joral, A., Lasa, E. M., Martínez, S., & Echenagusia, M. A. (2019). Contact urticaria caused by phenoxyethanol in ultrasound gel. Contact dermatitis81(2), 132–133. https://doi.org/10.1111/cod.13255

[viii] Chasset, F., Soria, A., Moguelet, P., Mathian, A., Auger, y., Francès, Barete, S. (2016). Contact dermatitis due to ultrasound gel: a case report and published work review. J Derm, 43(3), 318-320. https://doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.13066

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Phthalates" for more information. 

  • Phthalates are found in many body care products, especially those with fragrance. They are known endocrine disruptors (chemicals that interfere with the body’s production and use of hormones). [i] [ii] [iii]
  • Exposure to phthalates can impair both male and female fertility.[iv] [v]  
  • Maternal phthalate exposure can negatively impact the sexual development of their offspring and male offspring may be particularly susceptible.[vi] [vii]
  • Exposure to phthalates in utero has been shown to have epigenetic effects, meaning they alter genes and their expression permanently and in some cases even in the next generations.[viii]

 


[i] http://endocrinedisruption.org/

[ii] European Commission. List of 146 substances with endocrine disruption classifications prepared in the espert meeting. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/docum/pdf/bkh_annex_13.pdf August 13, 2014.

[iii] Candidate list of substances of very high concern for authorisation. (n.d.). Retrieved April 07, 2021, from https://echa.europa.eu/web/guest/candidate-list-table

[iv] Radke, E.G., Braun, J.M., Meeker, J.D., Cooper, G.S. (2018). Phthalate exposure and male reproductive outcomes: a systematic review of the human epidemiological evidence. Environment International, 121(1), 764-793. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.07.029

[v] Feldscher, K. (2016, November 8). Exposure to phthalates may raise risk of pregnancy loss, gestational diabetes. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/features/phthalates-exposure-pregnancy-loss-gestational-diabetes/.

[vi] Watkins, D. J., Téllez-Rojo, M. M., Ferguson, K. K., Lee, J. M., Solano-Gonzalez, M., Blank-Goldenberg, C., Peterson, K. E., & Meeker, J. D. (2014). In utero and peripubertal exposure to phthalates and BPA in relation to female sexual maturation. Environmental research134, 233–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.08.010

[vii] Wineland, R. J., Bloom, M. S., Cruze, L., Butts, C. D., Wenzel, A. G., Unal, E. R., Kohno, S., Willan, K. B., Brock, J. W., & Newman, R. B. (2019). In utero effects of maternal phthalate exposure on male genital development. Prenatal diagnosis39(3), 209–218. https://doi.org/10.1002/pd.5398

[viii] Singh, S., & Li, S. S. (2012). Epigenetic effects of environmental chemicals bisphenol A and phthalates. International journal of molecular sciences13(8), 10143–10153. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms130810143

Please see "Phthalates" for more information. 

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information. 

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

  • Pregnenolone is a precursor to DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and other hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone.
  • There are numerous potential side effects of using supplemental pregnenolone, which can be similar to the side effects of using DHEA. For more details see the DHEA section above.
  • Naturopaths and Medical Doctors do not recommend supplementing with pregnenolone unless blood levels have been checked and proven low. It is for these reasons that we don’t sell pregnenolone and feel that self-supplementation with pregnenolone, and self-diagnosis of low pregnenolone levels, is inappropriate and potentially dangerous.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information.

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

More information coming soon.

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information.

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

Please see "Artificial sweeteners" for more information. 

  • Talc can be contaminated with asbestos, a known carcinogen that can also causes lung disease. [i] [ii] [iii]
  • Although manufacturers agreed to ban asbestos in cosmetic talc in the 1970’s, asbestos-tainted talc has been found in cosmetics as recently as 2019.[iv] [v]
  • Regular use of talcum powder on the genitals is associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer.[vi]
  • Talc poses the greatest danger to workers exposed to it, but consumer exposure to talc may also increase the risk of developing cancer.[vii] [viii]

 


[i] FAQs: Modernization of the USP Talc Monograph. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2021, from https://www.usp.org/frequently-asked-questions/talc-monograph  

[ii] Richards, M. (2020, March 9). FDA in brief: FDA releases final report of talc- containing cosmetic products tested for asbestos. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/fda-brief/fda-brief-fda-releases-final-report-talc-containing-cosmetic-products-tested-asbestos

[iii] Asbestos and Cancer Risk. (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2021, from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/asbestos.html

[iv] https://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/cosmetics-recalls-alerts/fda-advises-consumers-stop-using-certain-cosmetic-products

[v] https://abc11.com/news/company-responds-after-i-team-finds-asbestos-in-makeup/2213914/

[vi] International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, (2010). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans (Vol. 93) carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc. Lyon, France. Available at https://publications.iarc.fr/Book-And-Report-Series/Iarc-Monographs-On-The-Identification-Of-Carcinogenic-Hazards-To-Humans/Carbon-Black-Titanium-Dioxide-And-Talc-2010  

[vii] (2015, September 30). Talc used in food processing a health hazard, say researchers. Retrieved from https://www.foodprocessing.com.au/content/food-design-research/news/talc-use-in-food-processing-a-health-hazard-say-researchers-859641872

[viii] Chang, C. J., Yang, Y. H., Chen, P. C., Peng, H. Y., Lu, Y. C., Song, S. R., & Yang, H. Y. (2019). Stomach Cancer and Exposure to Talc Powder without Asbestos via Chinese Herbal Medicine: A Population-Based Cohort Study. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(5), 717. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050717

  • Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and although it is often touted as a miracle cure, using testosterone supplements and/or cream is not without risks.
  • Potential adverse effects of exogenous testosterone include acne, infertility, an increased risk of adverse heart events, and erythrocytosis (an increase in red blood cells that can increase the risk of blood clotting and other complications). [i] [ii]
  • Naturopaths and Medical Doctors do not recommend using testosterone cream unless blood levels have been checked and proven low. It is for the above reasons that we do not sell testosterone cream and feel that self-supplementation with testosterone, and self-diagnosis of low testosterone levels, is inappropriate and potentially dangerous.

 


[i] Grech, A., Breck, J., Heidelbaugh, J. (2014). Adverse effects of testosterone replacement therapy: an update on the evidence and controvery. Ther Adv Drug Saf, 5(5), 190-200. doi: 10.1177/2042098614548680

[ii] Gilbert, K., Cimmino, C. B., Beebe, L. C., & Mehta, A. (2017). Gaps in Patient Knowledge About Risks and Benefits of Testosterone Replacement Therapy. Urology, 103, 27–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2016.12.066

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information. 

  • While we value titanium dioxide creams and lotions as a great alternative to chemical-based sunscreens, we have serious concerns about ingesting titanium dioxide, which inevitably happens when it is included in lip and oral care products.
  • Humans and animals are capable of absorbing orally ingested titanium dioxide, and even small amounts can lead to negative physiological changes.[i]
  • Titanium dioxide may cause damage in the intestines without even being absorbed into the body. Research suggests that chronic ingestion of titanium dioxide induces low-grade inflammation of the colon and alters gut homeostasis in ways that may contribute to the development of autoimmune conditions, and of chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal issues such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease and colon cancer.[ii] [iii] [iv]

 


[i] Pele, L.C., Thoree, V., Bruggraber, S. F.A., Koller, D., Thompson, R, P.H., Lomer, M.C., Powell, J.J. (2015). Pharmaceutical/food grade titanium dioxide particles are absorbed into the bloodstream of human volunteers. Part Fibre Toxicol, 12, 26. doi: 10.1186/s12989-015-0101-9

[ii] Winkler, H. C., Notter, T., Meyer, U., & Naegeli, H. (2018). Critical review of the safety assessment of titanium dioxide additives in food. Journal of nanobiotechnology16(1), 51. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12951-018-0376-8

[iii] Bettini, S., Boutet-Robinet, E., Cartier, C., Coméra, C., Gaultier, E., Dupuy, J., …Houdeau, E. (2017). Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon. Sci Rep, 7, 40373. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep40373

[iv] Pinget, G., Tan, J., Janac, B., Kaakoush, N.O., Angelatos, A.S., O’Sullivan, J., …Macia, L. (2019). Impact of the food additive titanium dioxide (E171) on gut microbiota-host interaction. Front Nutr, 6, 57. DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2019.00057

  • Toluene is a volatile chemical solvent that is used in nail polish, paints, varnishes, etc. When a product with toluene is used, the toluene quickly evaporates into the air where it is inhaled and enters the blood stream. Although inhalation of toluene is the major exposure route, it can also pass through the skin.[i]
  • Low to moderate exposure to toluene through inhalation can cause central nervous system disruptions such as fatigue, confusion, headaches, memory loss, and nausea.[ii]
  • Toluene can also cause skin, eye, and throat irritation and, with repeated exposure, especially at high levels, permanent cognitive impairment. Workers exposed to toluene may experience more serious symptoms such as numbness, reproductive issues and miscarriage.[iii]

 


[i] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (2017, June). Toxicological profile for toluene. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp56.pdf 

[ii] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016, March 3). ToxFAQs for Toluene. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved November 23, 2021, from https://wwwn.cdc.gov/TSP/ToxFAQs/ToxFAQsDetails.aspx?faqid=160&toxid=29.

[iii] Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (n.d.). Department of Labor logo United Statesdepartment of labor. Toluene - Overview . https://www.osha.gov/toluene.

Please see "Partially hydrogenated oils" for more information. 

Please see "Antibacterial soaps, body washes, wipes, toothpastes, and hand sanitizers" for more information.

More information coming soon.

Please see "Parabens" for more information.

Please see "Formaldehyde & formaldehyde donors" for more information. 

  • Although real vanilla is composed of hundreds of flavor compounds, vanillin is the one most responsible for the flavor we associate with vanilla.
  • Vanillin can be produced from yeast that has been genetically modified. These yeasts produce vanillin glucoside by fermenting glucose.
  • Because vanillin is made from genetically modified yeasts and is not natural, we do not carry products that contain it.

References available upon request